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The history of the United Kingdom began in the early eighteen century, the United Kingdom is an island country comprised of Great Britain and Northern Ireland situated in the northwest of mainland Europe. It is an island located in the Atlantic Ocean just offshore of France. The UK is a union of four countries including England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. London is the capital of the UK, which is the world’s major leading commercial, financial, and cultural center. There are some truths about the formation of the United Kingdom.
C.925- The Kingdom of England was established by the union of Anglo-Saxon tribes across England.
1536- King Henry VIII enacted a bill that involved a country uniforming England and Wales governed by the same laws.
1707- The Kingdom of Scotland joined the Kingdom of England to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1801- United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland joins and once again the name changes.
1922- The Republic of Ireland withdraws from the union leaving the northern countries of Ireland. This is how the name UK continued till today.
The climate in the United Kingdom is a temperate oceanic climate, a classification that shares with most of northwest Europe. As the climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, Northern Ireland, Wales, the western parts of England and Scotland are generally the mildest, wettest and windiest regions of the UK which are closest to the Atlantic Ocean. The temperature is seldom extreme. Eastern areas are drier, cooler, and less windy and they have daily and seasonal temperature variations whereas northern areas are cooler and wetter and temperature slightly higher than southern areas.
It is also influenced by maritime polar air mass from the north-west because of which Ireland and west of Scotland have cool moist air and east of Scotland and north-east England are more exposed to continental polar air mass which brings cold dry air. The temperature ranges from 18 to 25 C (64 to 77 F).
July is the hottest month in the UK with an average temperature of 19 C and coldest in January at 5 C and sunshine hours at 7 in June. October is the wettest month with an average of 71mm of rain.
The economy of the UK is highly developed and market-oriented. One of the strongest component of the UK economy is energy sector. It is the fifth-largest national economy in the world measured by nominal gross domestic product(GDP), ninth-largest by purchasing power parity(PPP), and twenty first-largest by GDP per capita, consisting of 3.3% of world GDP. The UK is considered as one of the globalized economies comprising of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
UK has a combination of both publicly-and-privately owned companies. Since the 1980s, the government has worked to privatize most state-owned enterprises but unemployment concerns and public opposition have slowed the future privatization plans. Industries that are owned by the government include railways, ship building, and some steel companies. The major part of the uk industry include energy, mining, manufacturing, and construction. Energy is the net exporting sector of the UK. The UK has abundant reserves of gas, coal, and atomic power. Energy resources are mainly concentrated in the North Sea. There are currently 100 active oil and natural gas fields.
The country includes a number of international firms, such as Texaco, Phillips Petroleum, and Chevron. The main energy source is oil. Due to the depletion of stocks of various minerals the mining minerals have declined over the past thirty years. The main mineral that is still being mined is lead and tin. Production of refined metals such as aluminum and steel are significant in the country. The United Kingdom has substantial production of minerals used for construction such as clay, kaolin, and gypsum. Britain is the major cement producer. Blue circle cement and castle cement companies controls 75 percent of the market in the country. Europe’s largest steel producer is British Steel wit revenues of US$12 billion. The country produces about 13 million metric tons of steel per year.
The official currency of the UK is known as the pound or sterling. It is divided into 100 pence. The symbol for the penny is “p”; therefore, the amount 50p is pronounced “fifty pence” often pronounced as “fifty pee”/fifty pis/. This also helps to distinguish between new and old pence amounts during the changeover to the decimal system. A decimal halfpenny was issued until 1984 but was removed because of its higher face value. The pound was divided into 20 shillings and each shilling into 12 pence before decimalization in 1971. The “pound sterling” is the oldest currency that was in use but the current currency is called the pound. The official name is used to distinguish the currency from other country currencies. Sometimes the currency is abbreviated just as sterling particularly in the wholesale financial markets. The symbol for the pound is the Bank of England is the central bank for issuing banknotes and regulating the issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The United Kingdom is one of the well-known study destinations for Indian students. Many undergraduate and postgraduate study programs are available for applicants aspiring to study in the UK. Studying in the UK provides an opportunity for students to experience an environment where they can enhance their knowledge and upgrade their knowledge in the quest of study. Universities in the UK offer courses in many areas of education including Engineering, Science, Art and Design, Business and Management, and a world center for scientific research that adds value to the student's future. The UK study system gives students a convenient way to study combining courses and subjects from different areas of study so that students can pertain the degree according to their own needs and interests. The UK is a home for the world's top universities which attract thousands of students including from India.
The popular courses in the UK are:
- Computer science
- Design studies
- Preclinical medicine
- Sports and exercise science
- Subjects allied to medicine
- Combinations with business and administration studies
- University of Greenwich
- University of Oxford
- Teesside university
- University of East London
- University of Cambridge
- University of Manchester
- King’s College London
- University of Leeds
- Imperial College London
- UCL (University College London)
- University of Edinburgh